Battery Storage Knowledge Bank

Tesla Powerwall 2

Quick links

Tesla Powerwall 2 - Tesla battery solar

Following on from the first generation Powerwall, the most popular and cost-effective home storage product on the market is Tesla Powerwall 2.

Powerwall 2 at a glance


Usable capacity: 13.5kWh
Power output: 3.68kW or 5kW (subject to grid permission)
Round-trip efficiency: > 90%
Monitoring: Tesla app
Warranty: 10 years
Mounting: Wall- or floor-mounted and can be stacked
Location: Indoor or outdoor installation
Dimensions (main unit): H 1,150mm x W 753mm x D 147mm
Weight: 114kg
Energy density (including inverter / charger): 100 kWh / m3

Tesla Powerwall app power flow



The system offers a range of functionality:

  • storage of excess solar output on site;
  • off-peak charge and peak discharge (buy cheap, use peak) - perfect for time-of-use tariffs such as Economy 7 or smart tariffs from various suppliers;
  • backup in a power cut.

Note if you have previously installed a Powerwall 2 unit without backup (likely pre-2019), you would need to upgrade the Gateway to enable backup functionality - see installation section below.


Powerwall 2 consists of the main unit (see picture in our downloadable guide) which houses the battery and inverter/charger, as well as a smaller Energy Gateway which measures the energy flows through the house and directs the battery to charge or discharge accordingly. It also 'islands' the house in a power cut, enabling the solar system to keep working and the battery to charge and discharge.

The gateway is a stylish frosted glass-fronted ‘mini’ version of Powerwall 2, measuring 380mm wide x 584mm tall x 127mm deep, and weighing 9.8kg. It is IP55 rated, so suitable for outdoors, and can be padlocked to stop any unwanted access.

The gateway is installed near the electricity meter. The main battery unit should be relatively close to the gateway, otherwise the installation cost increases. The ideal scenario is an integrated garage with the meter and fuseboard inside. If there is no garage, the main unit usually goes on the outside wall as close as possible to the gateway and electricity meter. The installation typically takes up to a day for two installers.

A typical schematic is as follows:

Tesla Powerwall 2 schematic

Timed charge and discharge

Across the nation, electricity demand reaches a high in the late weekday afternoons (4-7pm), and then falls to a low overnight. However, to date most domestic properties have paid a single rate electricity tariff which doesn’t reflect the peaks and troughs of demand. Some domestic properties are on an Economy 7 (or Economy 10) tariff with a peak rate and an off-peak rate.

More suppliers are starting to trial or offer time-of-use (ToU) tariffs, with time banded tariffs reflecting demand and supply across the nation and the true underlying cost of electricity. Octopus has even launched a Tesla Energy Plan with 10-12p/kWh import and export, and low standing charge.

With the advent of smart meters, able to record half hourly electricity use, the market will gradually witness the introduction of many more such time-of-use tariffs. Clearly there are large savings to be made by buying electricity at night and using it in the day. Time-based controls are now in place for Powerwall 2.

The system user can choose between two different control modes in the Tesla app:

  • Self-powered. This mode is purely for solar self-consumption, with no charging from the grid. It will prioritise charging from the solar at all times and discharge whenever it can to maximise self-usage.
  • Time-based control. This 'load shifting' mode incorporates charging from the grid at off-peak times where possible to maximise savings, as well as charging from solar during the day. You set the peak and off-peak time slots of your electricity tariff. Powerwall learns your usage patterns to forecast energy demand, so this mode can take about a week to become available.
Mode Backup reserve Solar self usage %  Savings  Who should do this?
Self-powered Configurable (0-100%) Great! OK "I want to minimise my carbon footprint"
Time-based control Configurable (0-100%) OK Great! "I have a ToU tariff and want to maximise my savings"

You don’t even need a solar system to benefit from time-of-use charge and discharge. That said, the best savings will be realised through a combination of solar self-consumption and ToU charging and discharging.


Powerwall 2 enables you to continue providing power to your home or business during power cuts. It also allows your solar PV system to keep running in a power cut (as long as the system is subject to size limits below).

Powerwall can be installed to back up the whole house, or it can be installed such that it backs up only certain loads. Even with ‘whole house’ backup, certain large loads (such as a car charger) can technically be excluded via load shedding, though our preference is to differentiate backed up and non-backed up loads when wiring up.

The system will switch automatically although the switch will not be to UPS (uninterrupted power supply) standard. Tesla claims that in general you won’t notice the switch (except via a notification on the Tesla app), but don’t rely on the seamlessness of the system if you have critical loads requiring seamless backup e.g. life support equipment.

You will need to specify a reserve percentage (e.g. 30%) and the system will always keep that percentage of the capacity in reserve for a power cut. This setting can be changed.

If the grid goes down and the loads in the house exceed 5kW, (or if they exceed 3.68kW for a system set on the lower 3.68kW power output at commissioning), the battery will shut down. The system will spend the next hour sending you reminders to turn off high power loads so that the total load falls below 5kW and the battery can restart. After this the battery will need a manual reset to reboot (via the gateway box).

Tesla Powerwall functioning in power cut

Solar system will continue to function in a power cut

Not only will a backup enabled system keep the lights on in a power cut, it will also keep the solar system functioning. The system will continue to function whilst there is either a load or sufficient spare battery capacity to soak up the solar electricity it produces.

If there is insufficient load or battery capacity to soak up the solar, the system will automatically power down the solar. However it should be noted that for this to work effectively don’t connect more than 7.6kWp of solar to a system with a single Powerwall set at 5kW output. If Powerwall is set at 3.68kW (due to DNO constraints), don’t connect more than 5kWp.

If you want more solar, you need more Powerwalls, or you need to connect the solar 'upstream' of the gateway so that the solar disconnects in a power cut…

In practical terms...

The sizing of Powerwall 2 means that with full backup power (5kW), with some judicious juggling, your life should continue undisturbed through the average power cut. That said, you should probably wait until the power comes on before using an electric dryer, and if you want to ensure you can continue to cook up a storm in the kitchen, it’s probably best to install two Powerwalls. 

If you reserve 30% of your battery (4kWh), then you should be able to watch TV, use your laptop and keep the lights and freezer working for almost four hours, whilst enjoying a few cups of coffee in the process.

Typical loads are as follows:


  • fridge / freezer: 500W;
  • kettle: 3,000W;
  • oven: 3,650W;
  • induction hob: 1,500W;

Office and entertainment

  • laptop: 50W;
  • TV: 80W;


  • average lighting load 500W (2,500W all LED lights blazing for a typical 4 – 5 bed house);

Laundry / dishwasher

  • dishwasher: 1,250W;
  • washing machine: 500W;
  • electric clothes dryer: 4,000W.

Note that if you try and run more than the 5kW load limit, Powerwall 2 will stretch to 7kW for a few seconds, but after that you will see some brownout behaviour, as indeed you would if you tried to import more than your 100A supply from the grid.

Two Tesla Powerwalls

3-Phase connections

Most households run on a single phase connection (230V). If you have a 3-phase connection (400V), Powerwall 2 can still be used but with the following limitations:

  • There is no 3-phase version so instead single units have to be put on each phase to power 3-phase loads. The maximum number of units that can be installed per site for 3-phase supply is 9 - 3 per phase. Alternatively, you can put up to 10 units on one phase to power single phase loads.
  • Even with Powerwall 2 installed on each phase, the backup functionality will only allow loads to work on a single phase when the grid goes down.

We recommend Tesla Powerwall 2 for several reasons:

  • Design and efficiency. The system uses a highly efficient battery and inverter (>90% AC in to AC out) combined with a battery management system controlling the state of charge, voltage, temperature and other parameters.
  • Quality control and safety. The system has been developed in-house by Tesla following their substantial experience from automotive battery technology. Every system undergoes extensive testing and inspection in their Gigafactory in the U.S. and the inbuilt management system incorporates an inherently multi-layered safety system.
  • 10 year warranty. Unlike most battery manufacturers, Tesla prefers to talk in terms of years rather than cycles, cycles being a less easily understood concept than years. Tesla's warranty guarantees unlimited cycles for self-consumption and time-based control (grid charging). The warranty guarantees the battery will retain 80% of its initial capacity after 10 years. That means that after 10 years, Powerwall 2 should still be able to provide 10.8kWh of capacity. An important thing to note is that there is a UK free phone number to claim (not China, Korea, Germany or a sales rep's mobile like some batteries).
  • Lowest lifetime cost per kWh. Powerwall 2 offers great value for money, giving one of the lowest lifetime cost per kWh stored on the market, well below the current cost of grid electricity.
  • Beautiful design, wall hung and weatherproof. Space is a consideration in residential properties, as indeed is aesthetic appearance. The design is modern and minimalist, designed to be seen, not hidden away out of sight. And the waterproof case means that it can be installed outdoors.
  • Flexibility. Tesla has designed a system that will allow AC-coupling with any PV system, or even without a PV system if used only for off-peak charging and backup. Furthermore, up to ten Powerwall 2 units can be installed together to help power systems of varying size.
  • High capacity (kWh) and power output (kW). Powerwall 2 has a total usable capacity of 13.5 kWh and a maximum power rating of 5kW. This is well above the size of competitor systems (even though they cost more…). That’s because as well as being geared to storage of excess power, Powerwall 2 is geared to the future: time-of-use charging. Tesla also gets that most people wanting backup would like their life to continue relatively undisturbed (see our section on backup to understand the different load types). The system is also geared to ride the rollercoaster of the British weather system.
  • Reduced peak demand charges. Powerwall 2’s large usable capacity can be combined with time-of-use tariffs to help reduce your electricity bill. By charging Powerwall 2 overnight from the national grid on the lower tariff, daytime peak demands can be met through battery discharge rather than more expensive grid import.
  • Grid backup facilities. Powerwall 2 enables you to continue providing power to your home or business during power cuts. See above.
  • Increases power output of the average home by 20%. Most homes have a single phase 100A connection, limiting power consumption in the home to 100A. At 230 V, that’s around 23 kW. With a 5 kW continuous output from the battery, a full battery has the potential to ramp simultaneous power consumption by 20% for 2.5 hours. This may come in handy if yours is one of those busy households with a two hour window in which to wash the dishes, dry the clothes, cook dinner and charge the car… And if you’re running a home with two electric vehicles fighting to be charged, some sort of turbo-boost on the incoming grid power is going to be an absolute must.
  • Export Limitation Certification. Most battery systems require prior approval from the electricity grid (DNO) before they are installed, including all systems that provide grid backup such as Powerwall 2. Tesla is one of the only manufacturers to have certification in place which guarantees that the battery will not export any power to the grid, however, which makes grid connection permission more likely in areas where the local network may be constrained or when coupling with a large solar system.
  • Warranty. Tesla doesn’t talk in terms of life cycles, a concept which is not easily quantified by most of us. Tesla talks in terms of years and minimum output. If you use your battery for solar storage only, Tesla guarantees that the storage capacity will still be at least 10.8kWh (80%) after 10 years.

Tesla battery solar compatibility

Powerwall 2 is AC-coupled and therefore compatible with any solar system when connected to the grid. It can be configured to allow any single phase solar system up to 7.6 kW AC rating to continue to function in a power cut (subject to install restrictions).

Tesla Powerwall cost

Tesla Powerwall costs around £9924 inc. 20% VAT, with prices varying depending on installation requirements. If installed as part of a solar system the applicable VAT rate may be lower at 5% (depending on solar product cost). The Tesla battery cost is generally lower per kWh than any other system, giving a lifetime cost per kWh competitive with the current grid cost of electricity (around 19p per kWh).

Spirit is a Tesla Powerwall certified installer.

For more information, download our guide "Is Tesla Powerwall 2 Right for Me?"

Is Tesla Powerwall 2 right for me? Tesla battery solar Download now

Or if you are having your Powerwall installed, check out our Tesla FAQs.

Important update (May 2022)

We have been advised by Tesla that the company is no longer taking firm orders for Powerwalls as its backlog is now extending out to 15 months of production, meaning that any new orders will not be fulfilled before the second half of 2023 (Q3 2023).

Due to the high levels of inflation, Tesla is unable to set a price now for production carried out in 12 months' time. Therefore the only option that we can offer people wishing to place orders for Powerwalls is that we will place their name on a 'no obligation' reservation list.

Tesla has said that it will confirm the price for each batch of production 6 months ahead of production date. Thus we expect to know the price at which we will be able to buy Q3 2023 production of Powerwall in early 2023. At that point we will be able to place confirmed orders with Tesla, and will approach all those on our reservation list to see if they wish to purchase at the price at which Powerwall is then available.

We are seeking alternatives to Powerwall, although it is our experience that the boom in renewables since the high electricity price inflation has led to a shortage of batteries across the board.

We apologise for this situation; the circumstances are unfortunately beyond our control.

Battery storage for solar panels: summary page

Interested about finding out about other battery systems?

Read our summary page on battery storage for solar panels.